طرز ساخت زمان حال کامل
The structure of the present perfect tense is:
subject + auxiliary verb + main verb have past participle
Here are some examples of the present perfect tense:
فعل کمکی have,has
+ I have seen ET. + You have eaten mine. - She has not been to Rome. - We have not played football. ? Have you finished? ? Have they done it?
Contractions with the present perfect tense
مخفف کردن فاعل وفعل کمکی درزمان حال کامل
When we use the present perfect tense in speaking, we usually contract the subject and auxiliary verb. We also sometimes do this when we write.
I have I've You have You've He has
The car has
We have We've They have They've
Here are some examples:
- I've finished my work.
- John's seen ET.
- They've gone home.
How do we use the Present Perfect Tense?
کاربرد زمان حال کامل
This tense is called the present perfect tense. There is always a connection with the past and with the present. There are basically three uses for the present perfect tense:
همانطور که از اسم این زمان برمی آید همیشه ارتباطی بین گذشته وحال دراین زمان وجوددارد.اساسا سه کاربرد دارد.
- experience خاطره یا تجربه
- change تغییر
- continuing situation موقعیتی که ادامه دارد.
1. Present perfect tense for experience
We often use the present perfect tense to talk about experience from the past. We are not interested in when you did something. We only want to know if you did it:
ما اغلب زمان حال کامل را درباره صحبت کردن درباره تجربه مان از گذشته بکار می بریم.مابازمان انجام عمل کاری نداریم وفقط می خواهیم بگوییم که انجام شده است.
I have seen ET.
He has lived in Bangkok.
Have you been there?
We have never eaten caviar.
past present future
!!! The action or state was in the past.
عمل در گذشته بوده است.
In my head, I have a memory now.
من حالا درباره آن می دانم.
Connection with past: the event was in the past.
Connection with present: in my head, now, I have a memory of the event; I know something about the event; I have experience of it.
2. Present perfect tense for change
We also use the present perfect tense to talk about a change or new information:
ما گذشته کامل را برای نشان دادن یک تغییر یا اطلاعات جدید بکار می بریم.
I have bought a car. Last week I didn't have a car.
هفته گذشته ماشین نداشتم.
Now I have a car.
حالا ماشین دارم.
John has broken his leg. past present future + - Yesterday John had a good leg. Now he has a bad leg.
Has the price gone up? past present future + - Was the price $1.50 yesterday? Is the price $1.70 today?
The police have arrested the killer.
پلیس کیلررا گرفته است.
past present future - + Yesterday the killer was free.
دیروز کیلر آزادبود.
Now he is in prison.
Connection with past: the past is the opposite of the present.
Connection with present: the present is the opposite of the past.
3. Present perfect tense for continuing situation
We often use the present perfect tense to talk about a continuing situation. This is a state that started in the past and continues in the present (and will probably continue into the future). This is a state (not an action). We usually use for or since with this structure.
برای نشان دادن حالتی بکار میرود که در گذشته شروع شده وادامه دارد وممکن است درآینده نیز ادامه داشته باشد.ما معمولا sinceوforبااین ساختار بکار می بریم.
I have worked here since June.
He has been ill for 2 days.
How long have you known Tara?
past present future
The situation started in the past. It continues up to now. (It will probably continue into the future.)
Connection with past: the situation started in the past.
Connection with present: the situation continues in the present.
For & Since with Present Perfect Tense
We often use for and since with the present perfect tense.
· We use for to talk about a period of time - 5 minutes, 2 weeks, 6 years.
· Forبرای نشان دادن دوره ای از زمان
· We use since to talk about a point in past time - 9 o'clock, 1st January, Monday.
· Sinceبرای نشان دادن نقطه ای اززمان درگذشته
for since a period of time a point in past time x------------ 20 minutes 6.15pm three days Monday 6 months January 4 years 1994 2 centuries 1800 a long time I left school ever the beginning of time etc etc
Here are some examples:
- I have been here for 20 minutes.
- I have been here since 9 o'clock.
- John hasn't called for 6 months.
- John hasn't called since February.
- He has worked in New York for a long time.
- He has worked in New York since he left school